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Title: Wh-questions in V-initial languages
Authors: Oda, Kenji
Issue Date: 2002
Publisher: University of Toronto
Abstract: The structure of this paper is as follows: In chapter 2, I will argue that there are two kinds of VSO languages; the V-movement type and the VP- movement type. By reviewing Alexiadou and Anagnostopoulou (1998, 1999), and Massam (2000, 2001), I explain what exactly I mean by V-movement lan- guages and VP-movement languages, and what kinds of syntactic properties are found in each type. In chapter 3, I consider the issue of wh-questions by reviewing Cheng (1997). I review the Clause Typing Hypothesis, and the problems that op- tional fronting languages create for the hypothesis. Furthermore, I suggest that the optional fronting languages are in fact a subset of VP-movement languages. I follow Cheng's proposal of wh-cleft and adapt it to ¯t in to the context of the VP-movement languages by claiming that it is wh-pseudo-cleft. Chapter 4 discusses what is meant by \cleft." As I follow Cheng (1997) in assuming that wh-fronting in the optional fronting languages is a kind of cleft construction, it is necessary to make explicit what (pseudo-)clefts entail, and what di®erence are observed between the wh-in-situ structure and the wh-pseudo-cleft constructions. First, I review Rooth (1996) and ¶E. Kiss (1998) regarding the common assumption that a cleft is associated with the notion of \focus," and conclude that it may not necessarily the case. Then, I discuss Paul's (2001) analysis of pseudo-cleft construction in Malagasy, and adopt her account of the interpretational e®ects without additional functional projections.The analysis given thus far is applied to Irish in chapter 5. Using the observations made in chapter 2 as diagnostics, I show that Irish is a VP- movement language, and discuss how to account for an apparent problem presented by Irish for Cheng's (1997) hypothesis.
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