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Title: Maricopa Morphology and Syntax
Authors: Gordon, Lynn Martha
Keywords: Maricopa - Grammar
River Languages
Yuman Languages
Cochimí-Yuman Languages
American Indigenous Languages
Issue Date: 1980
Publisher: University of California, Los Angeles
Abstract: This is a descriptive grammar of Maricopa, a member of the River branch of the Yuman language family. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed and accurate description of presentday Maricopa morphology and syntax and to examine the historical development of a number of verbal constructions found in Maricopa (and related languages). A short sketch of Maricopa phonology is presented, including the phonemic inventory, the structure of the word, the processes (in broad outline), and the intonation patterns. The basic morphology and syntax of the Maricopa simple sentence is described. The elements of the verb are briefly introduced. The structure of the noun phrase is presented in detail, including the structure of the nominal stem, pronouns, demonstratives, adjectives, possession and case marking. Possessor raising (a process which affects the structure of the simple sentence) is introduced. Negation, of both nouns and verbs, is discussed. Word order within the sentence is described. The verb is then described in detail. The structure of the stem is presented. The stem deriving/ morphemes include the medio-passive suffix, the benefactive suffix, the causative markers, and the number markers. The system of number marking on Maricopa verbs is presented in some detail; the morphology is „ set out and the semantics of the derivation is discussed. Verbs in Maricopa can be derived to indicate whether their subjects are dual or plural; whether the action or state expressed by the verb is repeated; or whether the object of the verb is plural. The complex system of final aspect marking on the verb is presented. The affixes used to mark subordinate verbs are also examined, including the switch reference suffixes and other suffixes found on dependent verbs, The distribution of -k_ and -m in Maricopa as both realis suffixes and switch reference suffixes are examined and found to be distributed lexically, as well as conditioned by the features which typically control switch reference. The structure of more idiosyncratic verbs, i.e., the existential verbs, locational verbs and motion verbs, is presented. The syntax of auxiliary constructions is analyzed and auxiliary verbs are distinguished from main verbs in morphological and syntactic features. Complex sentences are examined in terms of the semantic relationships between the clauses of the sentences and the morpho-syntactic expression of those relationships. Nominalization and switch reference are used in a number of different subordinate clauses including complement clauses; modification of the noun; and adverbial clauses. A number of subordinate clauses are described. Finally, the syntax of clausal conjunction is presented in detail. Clauses in Maricopa are conjoined co-ordinately only by subordinating both clauses to a third verb; other- ■ wise clauses can only be related to*each other by subordinating one to the other. Thus, all sentences in Maricopa which have more than one clause involve subordination. The historical development of a number of verbal constructions is considered. It is demonstrated that some constructions are subject to multiple analyses: some forms function as both main and auxiliary verb in the-.samfe ^construction;"-: and some forms as both auxiliary verbs and affixes on the main verbs. Sources for these multiple analyses are postulated, their historical development presented, and the consequences for the synchronic grammar considered. A number of constructions which have undergone 'simplification1 are examined, and their historical origins postulated. This chapter is devoted to considering the issue of grammatical change which Amplifies' individual sentences, while complicating the grammar.
Appears in Collections:Grammars (restricted access)

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