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Title: Causative constructions in Tsou
Authors: Chang, Chih-Wei Hugh
Keywords: Austronesian Languages
Tsouic Languages
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan)
Abstract: This thesis deals with various causative constructions in Tsou. Not only three main constructions -- poa causative constructions (Tung 1964, Starosta 1974, Zeitoum 2000, Y.-Y.Chang 2004, Huang 2005, and Lin 2002 and 2005), kua causative constructions (Y.-Y. Chang 2004) and causative constructions without poa (Y.-Y. Chang 2004), but also constructions containing poa, like object-control constructions and resultative constructions are analyzed. I mainly concentrate on poa causative constructions and kua causative constructions. Poa causative constructions have been discussed for a long time since they display many bizarre phenomena. For example, a causer never occurs as a subject, whereas a causee can, violating Accessibility Hierarchy (Keenan and Comrie 1977, and Comrie 1981 and 1985). According to new data that poa and following verbs can be separated even when the subject is not causee, I propose that poa is a restructuring verb with the NAV voice, taking the following VoiceP as its complement. The restructuring effect is achieved by the covert movement of the embedded verb, and the covert and discontinuous verb complex takes the causer as its actor, the causee as patient, and other NPs as applicative NPs. As for the phenomenon that causers can not be subjects, I come up with a generalization from constructions with nonfinite clauses that the subject has to agree with the VoiceP in different clauses in terms of voice feature. That the causer cannot agree with the embedded VoiceP makes it unable to be the subject. However, the generalization is available in Tsou because of two properties peculiar to Tsou. One is the causative element is a verb, not affix, and the other is that AF (AV)-only restrictions (Y.-L. Chang and Tsai 2001) is absent in Tsou. These two unique features make Tsou behave differently from other languages in causative constructions. Therefore, my thesis has two main implications. One is that causative constructions stand for a counter example for Focus (Voice) Harmony (Y.-L. Chang 2005) because the matrix Voice bears [-AV] and the embedded Voice carries [+AV] when the subject is causee. The second implication is that the equi-distance effect can also be reached by the covert head movement. Two intriguing phenomena are found in kua constructions. One is that, in addition to auxiliaries, kua can also attract bound pronominal. The other character is that the reason DP kua introduces is always the subject even though it does not agree with the verb and auxiliary. I propose that the KuaP, like HAPPLP, is an argument introducing phrase, taking VoiceP as its complement. Therefore, the reason DP in its spec is the highest candidate to be attracted to IP spec to check EPP.
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